Sharpe Ratio

Sharpe Ratio Formula, Values, and Interpretation

Sharpe Ratio Formula

Sharpe ratio formula

Here you can see detailed explanation of the formula.

Sharpe Ratio Value Range

Sharpe ratio can theoretically reach any value – positive, negative, or zero.

Here you can find more detailed explanation: Sharpe Ratio Range.

Here you can find the interpretation of negative Sharpe ratio.

Sharpe Ratio Papers and Resources

The following papers discuss the Sharpe ratio and its practical applications.

Sharpe ratio was originally invented by William F. Sharpe in 1966 and introduced in this paper:

William F. Sharpe: Mutual Fund Performance; first published in The Journal of Business, January 1966. Freely available as pdf download on Stanford University website:

In 1994 Sharpe published a substantial revision of the Sharpe ratio:

William F. Sharpe: The Sharpe Ratio; first published in The Journal of Portfolio Management, Fall 1994. Freely available online on Stanford University website:

Papers covering practical applications and modifications of Sharpe ratio:

William F. Sharpe: Morningstar’s Risk-adjusted Ratings; Stanford University, January 1998:

William F. Sharpe: Morningstar’s Performance Measures; Stanford University:

The Sharpe ratio part:

William F. Sharpe

William Forsyth Sharpe is STANCO 25 Professor of Finance, Emeritus, at , Stanford University, and 1990 laureate. Most people associate him with the Sharpe ratio, but he has substantially contributed to numerous other key financial concepts, including the Capital Asset Pricing Model or binomial option pricing models.

The following resources are among the best (in my humble opinion) if you want to quickly learn more about Professor Sharpe and his works:

Personal page of William F. Sharpe on Stanford University website. This page contains links to various papers, lecture videos and audios, and other resources by Professor Sharpe:

Detailed bio with all positions, awards, publications, and courses:

William F. Sharpe page on Wikipedia:

William F. Sharpe autobiography on The Nobel Foundation website. It was written at the time of the Nobel Prize (1990), therefore it does not cover the later years:


Related pages


how to calculate covariance by handblack scholes inputswacc formulaenotepad backgroundwhat does implied volatility meanwhen do vix options expireetfs that track the vixspectral skewnessvix exchangecompounded return formulacosting accounting formulasblack scholes theoremdelta formulaswacc formulaeblack and scholes equationmean calculator excelyahoo finance eurnotepad font sizereverse straddlewacc market value of debtcalculating sharpe ratioipath etnsindexation calculationstdev calculatorsp500 vixstraddle strangle butterflyhow do you calculate the sample variancehull futures options and other derivativesoption delta calculationwhat is d1 in black scholesvix inversethe complete guide to option pricing formulasshort put payoffvxx us equityvix futures symbolfinding variance in exceldelta formula mathmerits and demerits of arithmetic meanskewness valuessec 13fcalculate sample standard deviation excelmethods of measuring skewnesseuro stoxx 50 index historical pricesannualized formula in exceldownside risk calculationinterpret sharpe ratiomean variance standard deviation calculatorrumus delta tcall option profit calculatorsquare root of a negative number calculatorspot vixmean sd calculatorfutures tick valuearbitrage fund meaningproshare short s&p 500delta of a call optionfifo lifo avcofxb etfs&p futures symbolstandard deviation formula derivationhow to calculate exponential moving average in excelarbitrage trading definitionacceptable skewness and kurtosis valuessample variance formula excelstock calculator historicalvix trading strategydifference between options and forwardsmacd 2 lineaverage true range explainedparametric varmacd histograms&p 500 historical valuesoption spread calculatormerits and demerits of mean median mode